Homo neanderthalensis was an exclusively European hominin that developed from Homo heidelbergensis gradually between ~400,000-300,000 years ago. It dominated the continent until modern Homo sapiens arrived, at which point they went into decline and eventually became extinct ~30,000 years ago.
- They used red ochre as early as 200,000 years ago. This was traded from far away but might not have been used for art.
- Neanderthals wore simple clothes that covered most of their body, although only wore hats during the coldest periods.